Violation Tracker Parent Company Coverage
The agency enforcement records and Justice Department or court settlements/verdicts used in Violation Tracker usually do not indicate whether the company involved is part of a larger corporate entity. To make it easier for users of this database to get a full picture of the penalties paid by companies with numerous operations, we identify many of those parent entities using a variety of sources such as the Croctail compilation of subsidiary lists U.S. publicly traded companies are required to include in their 10-K filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Violation Tracker currently displays aggregated data for 2,981 parent companies. These parents are either large corporations, regardless of penalty amount, or smaller companies with large penalties. The parents have been linked to about 70,000 of the more than 325,000 entries in Violation Tracker and account for about 95 percent of the total dollar value of our penalty universe.
The parents we cover come from matching efforts involving the companies on the following lists, among others: the Fortune 1000, the Fortune Global 500, the S&P 500, the Russell 3000, the Forbes list of the largest private companies in the United States, the Uniworld list of the 1,000 largest foreign firms operating in the United States, and the Private Equity International list of the 100 largest private equity firms. We will add more parent coverage in the future.
Note: entries are tagged according to their current parent company, which may not have been the parent at the time of the violation. The parents used are the ultimate parents. In the case of companies majority-owned by private equity firms, that firm is used as the parent. Joint ventures are treated like subsidiaries when one of the owners has a stake of more than 50 percent; those in which no owner has a majority interest are treated like independent companies and larger ones are included in the parent lists.